Penis Size and Diabetes: Is There a Connection?

Most men would do just about anything to increase their penis size – even if they are already blessed with a more-than-adequate endowment. Even more so, men would do anything to prevent the penis from getting smaller. Yes, society’s obsession with the length and/or girth of a man’s equipment continues unabated, despite the fact that factors such as penis health and skill in the sack are of far greater practical importance. And when researching things that may account for a diminishment of penis size, some men find reports that diabetes may be responsible for some loss of size. Is this true? And if so, why?The short answerBasically, it is true that there can be a correlation between a man having diabetes and experiencing some loss of size of his organ. That’s not to say that every man who has diabetes has a small penis – only that there is a greater likelihood that a man with diabetes will have a penis that is in some way smaller than it once was.But what does that mean? If the penis shrinks, does that mean it shrinks both when erect and when soft, or only one or the other? And does the decrease occur in length? Or in girth? Or both?More detailsUnderstanding that there is not as much hard-and-fast evidence pout there as one might like, here’s what can be said about diabetes and penis size.If a man has diabetes, there is a greater chance that there will be a decrease in his erect penis; all other things being equal, the diabetes is less likely to affect his flaccid penis. And both length and girth may be affected, although it is likely that length is more often changed than girth.Why?Diabetes is associated with erectile dysfunction in many men. This is primarily because of the excess blood sugar that is a hallmark of diabetes; cardiovascular issues that impact blood flow are also common among people with this condition.When there is too much sugar in the blood for an extended period of time, it can cause damage to the nerves. The penis is filled with tingling, sensitive nerves; it is their stimulation that causes erections. But if the nerves and the nervous system are damaged by sugar, there can be lapses between the brain, the nerves and the penis that impact the process of getting an erection.At the same time, diabetes can weaken the heart, while also causing plaque to build up in arteries and vessels. Both of these factors impact the ability of the penis become engorged with blood during the arousal process. These issues result in an erection that is weak or even nonexistent; and a weaker erection is generally a smaller one – often in both length and girth.TreatmentMen who know that they have diabetes need to be sure that they maintain their treatment plan to help manage and control it. And if the plan isn’t working, they need to consult with their doctor to determine if changes are needed.Furthermore, if a man has not been diagnosed with diabetes but notices his penis size has been dwindling – particularly if it means his erections are not as long and full as they once were – he should bring this to the attention of his doctor. There could be many causes, but if it is an indication of diabetes, he needs to begin treatment as soon as possible.Diabetes can affect more than penis size, so to help keep penis function in good shape, men should tend to their penis health; that includes using a first rate penis health creme (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin). If the crème contains neuroprotective L-carnitine, that can help restore loss of penis sensitivity. And one with L-arginine is also recommended, as this amino acid is part of the process that keeps penile blood vessels healthy.

Limited Liability and Failure of Professionalism in Corporation

SUMMARY

This research is arguing the ideal that corporations must take higher risks to innovate and create value so as to reach their ultimate goals and to be able to compete in global markets with the complex global economy, it is out of professionalism because before working on all projects the first thing is to assess and analyze the risks by professionals, if the company can work or deal with the risks associated with the projects then the project can commence, but the boundaries of dangerous risks should be outline and respected by corporate executives.

We argued that bankruptcy of corporations is the failure of professionalism and that limited liability is the principal influence. We argued that professionalism is when professionals use their skills, status, methods, character or standards of a professional or of a professional organization to analyse risks which should be sufficient to safeguard the corporation not bankrupt or endanger the corporation.

We argued that corporate executives take very high and dangerous risks only when the corporation is facing difficulties because of failed projects caused by lack of professionalism or when carrying on fraudulent activities and the rules of limited liability are seek at these difficult or fraudulent moments.

1. Introduction

Despite all the theoretical expressions, with the state of having a plentiful supply of research materials of empirical evidence that have more visible or prominent positive of correlation between the use of alternatives in payment and various measures of risks, for instance stock-return volatility. These expressions are the work of Agrawal and Mandelker (1987).

The research of Tchistyi et al. (2011), explained that it is the specification of the convexity of stock alternatives that determines the sensitivity of CEO rich equity of risks taking. He found out that corporation’s stock-return volatility is positively associated with the convexity of the CEO’s huge and complete compensation package.

The errors and the incorrect calculation that generates things that continue to exist that are valuable to the society expressed by Michel Foucault. With the explanations of alternatives, firms are creating the opportunity for controllers to take risks because managers share gains with shareholders but do not share all the losses. These explanations are from Jensen and Meckling (1976).

The act of increasing trade during the early medieval Europe was associated with unlimited liability as a practicable mechanism for establishing trust because of the geographic distant that existed between markets Lopez and Raymond (1955). Members of corporation were jointly liable without limits for all debts that come into existence out of contract or crime undertaken by any corporate’s member Guerra-Medici (1982).

From the empirical beginning of limited liability, the affiliation of limited liability with corporate’s charters yielded strong reactions due to the effect of limited liability. Expressing that, decision committee was managing other people’s money. Things became worse with the principles of limited liability which limited the responsibility of controllers’ actions that have been promoting dangerous risks, Smith (1999).

2. Professionalism and the rule of law

Professional managers and corporate executives should exercise corporate standards of functioning that is critically expected from professionals. Professionals should have the capacity or ability of making judgements, applying their skills or expertise to provide solutions and manifest (unmistakable) or provide evidence for decisions in circumstances in corporations that ordinary employees or people cannot because they have not received the relevant training for such functioning.

The empirical analysis of Morgan Stanley’s case, in this case, we empirically analyzed that it is the lack of professionalism and the rule of law, because professionally, they are supposed to have outline or computerized all the details of operations with transparency and these are daily basis activities which are required by the law, for example Sarbanes-Oxley Act of (2002) which requires executives to personally certify the financial statements of their corporations, and affected by lack of the rule of law because the principles and regulations of corporations were not followed by the executives and lack of transparency that is required by the rule of law.

We argued that the rule of law and professionalism have to function simultaneously so as to manifest a perfect outcome in corporations, the lack of the rule of law is the lack of professionalism.

With the wealth of heterodox and critical analyses of professionalism, and the rule of law for small and large corporations, from the prospective of macro- and micro-perspectives which they directly contribute to corporate reforms and policies to regulate the governance of small and large corporations.

Limited liability in corporations makes reference to a considerable large amount of legal principles that limit the obligations of shareholders for the debts of their firms to the recent value of their shareholding. Consequently, for any debts not within the scope of their investment, they are exempted from any claims made by the creditors. The problematical issues of limited liability are the temptation of taking high risks and the possible lack of transparency of the functioning of executives.

The lack of transparencies in corporations influence the lack of professional ethics, lack of the rule of law and promote corruption. In this section of the research we are seeking to situate the role of professionalism and relevance of the rule of law in corporations and how the failure of professionalism is influence by limited liability. These elements principally influence the governance and theory of corporations.

Adelphia’s scandal that filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2002.In this case we analyzed that it was the issue of decentralization of powers which can be found in many corporation. Decentralization of power reduces abuse of powers which is one of the principles of the rule of law, if executive members of a corporation are from different background with limited powers divided and not only within a certain community, it would be difficult for controllers in a corporation to exercise fraud or come to a compromise to act outside the law.

After all these empirical analysis, we decided to interview corporate executives to have stronger and authentic answers to backup our arguments on this research. The first question in our mind was why there are many failures or a lot straggle for corporations to survive? We started with international corporations in China and the findings were surprising.

It turns out that most corporations are taking up new risky projects now solely because they want to meet with the competitions of other companies not because they deem the projects necessary or significantly beneficial to the corporation. For most executives it is significant for the corporation to meet or be in line with the competition. To us this definitely means high risk without profits goals.

This means we finally got the answer why corporations are taking more risks nowadays with a lot of failures. We tried interviewing more than 65 corporations including banks. We advised that it is better to wait back and seek for meaningful and profitable opportunities that will not only cover up all the time that has been wasted but will raise the capital and profits of the corporation and proved a useful meaning of professionalism.

Now that we understand that competitions are driving corporations to take more crazy risks and since our motive of this section of the research is to find out how failure of professionalism and the lack of the rule of law is the principal cause of failed projects in corporations, does this answer our question? This means corporate executives take very high risk for a short term benefit so as to maintain competitive markets, which might be dangerous for corporations and can bankrupt the company.

We thought it was quite preferable for corporations to function according to their level and that every loan taken by any corporations should have a specific purpose and gains in return if not it will be less professional to take high risk for short term benefits and hampered the corporation in a long term basis.

We found out that corporate executives were more willing to take higher or even dangerous risks for a very short term benefits which might be of long term problematic to the firm, the answers of thirty five executives were that the short term benefits were at hand and the long term negative impacts were in the future that thinks could change somehow in the future but the short term benefits must be achieved because of the high competitions and global economy challenges.

with the reasons being that within this short term benefits, let’s say three years, corporate executives would have made a lot of legal benefits for themselves given the fact that they have annual good packages and heavy salaries. And we found out that short term benefits were more beneficial to corporate executives than to the firms and even dangerous to firms because most short term benefits have long term negative impacts to the firms. Which means most executives lack professional skills and ethical codes of judgment because professional codes of behavior and codes of ethics provide positive guidance in making excellent judgement in corporations.

3. Literature Review

Professional codes might be difficult or requires great physical or mental efforts to accomplish in practice Mike Martin, Roland Schinzinger (2003). We examined that principles of limited liability make professionalism or professional codes more difficult to apply in real functioning. It is believed that different words and phrases in ethical codes are subject to different types of interpretations, and that it is possible for ethical principle to conflict with other ethical principles in some conditions or situations.

In this research we examined that ethical codes were difficult to apply because executives were doing everything they can to meet up with the high competitive markets and slow global economy growth and without applying ethical codes endangers the corporation. We examined that professional codes and ethical codes have developed a lots of corporations and are very significant to the success of corporations and that IT systems will increase transparency.

During this research we were caught up with one question that was difficult to answer. The executives are the ones to apply ethical codes in corporations and provide training for their employees even make sure these rules are being followed.

Now that the issue of ethical problems is with the executives, who will train them and make sure the rules of ethics are being followed in their corporations? To encourage and pursued employees to evaluate and to consider or examine by talking about ethical possible events, which would help improve employees understanding of the complexity of certain ethical issues and behavior Kreie and Cronan (2000).

Exempting controllers from any risks and problems involving debts encourages executives and managers to take higher risks Smith (1999). We understand that the higher the risks the greater the profits but we likewise perceive that corporate executives should have plan B in any risks they are taking and if the plan B is to file for bankruptcy Chapter 11then such risks are not wealth tanking that is, any risks that can result to the bankruptcy of the corporation is not wealth taking.

After the 1884 Act, there was a debate between members who wanted limited liability to become features associated by right to incorporation or partnership form and with those who perceived that a broad in scope or content will bring or cause diffusion of limited liability and would be dangerous Djelic (2013).

For those who were in favor of limited liability were associated with limited liability and the Partnership form with the main reasons for arguing that it would create protective conditions for employees and encourages the rich and middle class to invest their savings productively.

And the Liberals likewise were in support of limited liability but to associate it with incorporation. Their arguments were that without limited liability wealthy people might be discouraged from taking part in corporations therefore, risky activities in businesses which were necessary for the industrial development of the Country would not be carried on because of the deficiency of capital.

Limited liability is likewise believed to have aggressively and negatively attitude with arguments based on politics and ethical instead of the normal economic idea that should preoccupies the mind and holds the attention of the debates. And one of the principles of limited liability is that owners under limited liability would not be watching and controlling managers.

The principles of limited liability would bring into existence of protective and profitable investment conditions for every individual Loftus (2002). All the advocates of limited liability speak in defense of it as a significant and promoter of development, that it would create liberation of capital, industry, and will encourage great innovation creating possibility for the progress of markets by given the opportunity of risk-taking on a large scale.

Conclusion

We concluded that governments should provide ethical training centers for all corporate executives to encourage and pursued them to evaluate and to consider or examine by talking about ethical possible events which would help improve corporate executives understanding of the complexity of certain ethical issues and behavior.

While we acknowledge the facts that limited liability was created with good faith to encourage investments and promote economy benefits, our argument and conclusion is that limited liability is doing quite well as well as more harm to corporation.

Taking dangerous risks that will bankrupt the corporation and put hundreds of people into misery seems failure of professionalism to us. No corporation should go into bankruptcy because of high risks or fraudulent.

References

1. Agrawal A. and Mandelker G. N. (1987): Managerial Incentives and Corporate Investment and Financing Decisions,Tchistyi, Performance-sensitive debt (2011)t, Guay (1999). Jensen and Meckling (1976): Theory of the firm.

2. Lopez and Raymond (1955): Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World, Guerra-Medici (1982) Principle of unlimited liability. Smith, E. R. (1999): Affective and cognitive implications of group membership becoming part of the self.

3. Mike Martin and Roland Schinzinger (2003): Ethics in Engineeering,

4. Marie-Laure Djelic, (2013): Limited liability and its moral hazard implications: the systemic inscription of instability in contemporary capitalism. Loftus (2002): Creating False Memories

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